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  • Risk Management of Recreational Water Illnesses: Getting ready for the summerAdd to cart: $15.00

    Summer is upon us and what that means is the potential for Recreational Water Illnesses (RWIs). Are you ready to prevent or deal with outbreaks? Join us for this 90 minute event and find out about establishing a risk management plan for preventing and dealing with RWI outbreaks. Dr. Roy Vore will give you the ins and outs how facilities can combat RWIs.

    RWIs can occur in any type of water venue including beaches, oceans, lakes, rivers, swimming pools, waterparks, splash pads, wave pools, wading pools, spas, and therapy pools. This presentation will focus on the control of RWIs in treated aquatic facilities. Experienced operators will be able to use this information to develop a robust RWI control program that is tailored to their unique facility. This information will also be useful to builders and facility designers, inspectors, and code officials seeking details beyond those found in basic training resources. Participants will be guided to where they can find more comprehensive information about RWI management topics.



Category 1: Disinfection By-Products

  • Effects of UV-Based Treatment on Water and Air Chemistry in Chlorinated Indoor PoolsAdd to cart: $19.95

    Effects of UV-Based Treatment on Water and Air Chemistry in Chlorinated Indoor Pools Ernest R. Blatchley, III, PhD., P.E., BCEE, Purdue University

    Abstract

    UV-based water treatment processes are being used with increasing regularity to control microbial pathogens, and to improve water and air chemistry in recreational water facilities. UV is known to be effective for control of microbial pathogens that are responsible for a large fraction of recreational water illnesses of microbial origin, such as Cryptosporidium parvum. UV is also known to promote the degradation of inorganic chloramine compounds, including trichloramine (NCl3). However, investigations of the effects of UV-based processes on water and air chemistry have generally ignored most other disinfection byproducts (DBPs) that are known to be formed in chlorinated pools.

    Ongoing research has demonstrated that many DBPs exist as intermediates in pools where UV and chlorine are used together. This is because UV-based treatment promotes some reaction pathways, and opens other reaction pathways that would otherwise be unimportant. The reaction pathways that are opened or promoted by UV irradiation lead to formation and decomposition of a wide range of DBPs. By improving our understanding of the kinetics and mechanisms of these competing pathways, it is possible to define operating conditions that can lead to improvements in water and air chemistry.

  • State of Disinfection By-Products and HealthAdd to cart: $19.95

    State of Disinfection By-Products and Health Manolis Kogevinas, MD, Ph.D., Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL)

    Abstract

    Chlorination is a widely used and highly cost-effective technique for disinfection of drinking water and has conferred important public health benefits. Several epidemiological studies have shown an association between long-term exposure to chlorination by-products at levels currently found in waters in industrialized societies and increased risk of bladder cancer. Many of these compounds have been shown to be genotoxic but the mechanisms of action are not well elucidated. Experimental studies have shown a significant uptake of trihalomethanes, the most common water disinfection by-products, through ingestion but also through inhalation and dermal absorption when showering, bathing or swimming in pools. I will discuss recent epidemiological evidence on genotoxicity and cancer risk associated with exposure to trihalomethanes including exposures of swimmers. I will also present recent findings from studies on reproductive effects from exposure of pregnant mothers that globally do not support an association. I will then discuss recent findings on potential effects on respiratory health and asthma in children from swimming pool attendance that, overall, are inconsistent. Finally I will discuss future research in this field particularly the need for further epidemiological studies among swimmers, the need for a more complete evaluation of complex mixture of exposures in water, and the need for more mechanistic studies.

  • Comparative Toxicity of Water from Disinfected Recreational PoolsAdd to cart: $19.95

    Comparative Toxicity of Water from Disinfected Recreational Pools Michael Plewa, Ph.D.. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

    Abstract

    Disinfection of recreational pools is essential to prevent outbreaks of infectious disease. Despite the health benefits of swimming, recent research demonstrated an association between the application of disinfectants to recreational pools and adverse health outcomes. Pool waters are extreme cases of disinfection that differ in important respects from disinfected drinking waters. Pool waters are continuously exposed to disinfectants over average residence times extending to months. Disinfection byproduct (DBP) precursors in pools include natural humic substances deriving from the tap water source plus inputs from bathers through urine, sweat, hair, skin, and consumer products including sunscreens and cosmetics. This study presents a systematic, chronic in vitro mammalian cell cytotoxicity and genomic DNA damage analyses of different recreational waters with varied environmental conditions that were derived from a common tap water source. Recreational waters were significantly more toxic than their tap water source. Because trihalomethane concentrations are similar between tap waters and pool waters, using trihalomethanes to monitor exposure in epidemiological studies may not be the best metric. Of primary importance for both cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were illumination conditions. Pool water subjected to a combination of ultraviolet light and free chlorine disinfection indoors, or outdoor sunlight exposure exhibited lower toxic levels than their indoor counterparts disinfected with free chlorine. Temperature and total organic carbon content, as an indirect measure of DBP precursors, were less important. The genotoxicity of water from an indoor pool disinfected with bromochlorodimethylhydantoin was very high and the use of brominated disinfectants should be avoided. While the association of reduced toxicity with illumination indicates that the agents responsible are photolabile, their identity is unclear. As a broad measure of adverse biological responses, in vitro biological analyses may be a useful metric to gauge the health impacts of alterations in pool operating conditions.

  • Standardization of Health Impact Studies Due to Aquatic Environmental ExposuresAdd to cart: $19.95

    Standardization of Health Impact Studies Due to Aquatic Environmental Exposures Kelly Reynolds, Ph.D., University of Arizona

    Abstract

    Proper study design and data collection tools are of utmost importance for accurately estimating health effects related to swimming; and assuring the development of appropriate policy and regulation to improve public health. Current survey tools lack assessment of a variety of contributing swimmer exposure factors including activities associated with site- or scenario-specific events. Therefore, the overall goal of this project was to develop a questionnaire to accurately assess swimmer exposures that might lead to adverse health outcomes; and evaluate the role of pool/spa design and operations in risk mitigation.

    The questionnaire was created and administered to pool operators, a stratified sample of adults, children and older adults to determine the questionnaire’s relative accuracy for different swimming types. History of pool chemistry was assessed by collecting pool chemical log books from operators. Human activity patterns were assessed via video surveillance and dive computers. The video surveillance and dive computers were used to collect data on bather load and swimmer behaviors (i.e., length of time in water, submersion events, activity patterns, etc.). In addition, volume of water ingested was calculated by comparing the concentration of cyanuric acid in urine and pool water. Ingestion estimates were then compared to activity pattern assessments from the video surveillance data and used to validate inquiries on the questionnaire related to activity and ingestion self-reporting.

    This presentation will discuss project outcomes including a database of questions that can be used in future epidemiological research and outbreak investigations. In addition considerations of improved pool operations relative to bather activity patterns will be discussed.



Category 2: Drowning & Chronic Illness Prevention

  • Learning to Survive… Life Skills for AllAdd to cart: $19.95

    Learning to Survive…Life Skills for All Catherine Barry & Connie Harvey, American Red Cross

    Abstract

    When students participate in the American Red Cross Learn to Swim program, they do not simply learn the basic swimming strokes, they also gain knowledge and skills to help them survive. We strive to ensure that students have water competency and safety knowledge so they can enjoy the water safely in many different environments. The Red Cross is committed to ensuring that nobody is denied the opportunity to learn these life skills because of an inability to pay. This session will define water competency, briefly describe the American Red Cross Learn to Swim program, and share success stories where donor funding is helping to expand the reach of this program in communities across the nation.

  • Changing the Paradigm from Strokes to ComfortAdd to cart: $19.95

    Changing the Paradigm from Strokes to Comfort Melon Dash, Miracle Swimming Institute

    Abstract

    Since 1912 and the first 100 years of formal swimming instruction, the operative premise was, “if someone is afraid or unsafe in water, they just need to learn a stroke, like freestyle.” This solution has been called, “learning to swim.” It was a significant advance in water safety in the early 1900s. But now that a century has gone by, we are able to see what was good about it, what is missing, and how to improve it. What was good about it is clear: many learned to be safe in deep water. In the early 1900’s, drowning dropped dramatically.

    What is missing is that half the population doesn’t learn with that system. Drowning rates are still very high around the world even among people who have taken swimming lessons. In the 21st century, we now know what needs to be done to eradicate drowning as a significant cause of death. It requires a new paradigm of instruction based on teaching people first to be comfortable in the water, to know the water, and to be in control in the deep before the concept of strokes is ever mentioned. This paradigm has had a 100% success rate for 30 years. It can turn the swimming sports around, reduce drowning, and keep swimming pools open.

    Without this knowledge, the Aquatics industry is still in its infancy. We can grow and evolve the industry to maturity when aquatics professionals embrace this new paradigm.

  • Current Drowning & Chronic Illness Statistics: The Aquatic Industry's Challenge & OpportunityAdd to cart: $19.95

    Current Drowning & Chronic Illness Statistics: The Aquatic Industry’s Challenge & Opportunity Julie Gilchrist, MD, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention

    Abstract

    Aquatic environments can both contribute to and threaten the health and well-being of all Americans. We will explore the need for aquatic interventions to prevent and minimize: 1) the effects of chronic diseases and other health conditions such as obesity, diabetes and hypertension and 2) the risks of drowning. Aquatic activities can be an important mechanism for physical activity necessary to prevent and manage chronic diseases. One-third of US men and nearly 40% of women report NO leisure time physical activity. Racial and ethnic differences exist, with African Americans approximately 1.5 times more likely to report NO leisure time physical activity compared to whites. The US is in the midst of an obesity epidemic: In 1990, no state had an obesity rate over 15%; in 2010, no state had an obesity rate under 20%. In 2008, about 10% of all medical spending was related to obesity. Unfortunately, some Americans cannot reap the benefits of aquatic exercise due to fear or lack of swimming ability: two-thirds of US adults are afraid of deep water in natural water settings and almost half of adults are afraid to venture into the deep end of a swimming pool. Swimming ability also varies by racial/ethnic groups with about two-thirds of African American adults and children reporting limited swimming ability. Insufficient swimming ability can contribute to drowning risks. Overall, African Americans drown at higher rates than their white or Hispanic counterparts (1.40 per 100,000 vs. 1.28 and 1.21 respectively). In swimming pools, the drowning rate for African Americans aged 5-19 years is 6 times that of their white or Hispanic peers (0.6 per 100,000 vs. 0.1 among both whites and Hispanics). Everyone needs to know basic water survival skills and feel comfortable in the water. Formal swimming lessons for children as young as 1-4 years of age have been proven to reduce drowning risk. Programs to improve access to and participation in swimming lessons can reduce the risk of drowning while opening up a new venue for fun and fitness across the lifespan.

  • Make a Splash Initiative: Saving Lives through Swim LessonsAdd to cart: $19.95

    Make a Splash Initiative: Saving Lives through Swim Lessons Debbie Hesse & Mick Nelson, US Swimming Foundation

    Abstract

    Drowning is the 2nd leading cause of childhood accidental death. In a study commissioned by the USA Swimming Foundation and conducted by the University of Memphis, it was discovered that:

    • 70% of African-American children cannot swim
    • 60% of Hispanic children cannot swim
    • 42% of Caucasian children cannot swim &
    • If parents cannot swim, a child is less likely to swim

    As the philanthropic arm of USA Swimming, the national governing body for the sport of swimming in the United States, the USA Swimming Foundation is in a unique position to promote the life-saving skill of learn-to-swim, and to align lesson providers and aquatic industry partners to end drowning. We believe that swimming is the only sport that can save your life—and that by teaching the skill of learning to swim we are able to reduce the overall number of drownings in the United States. By teaching children to swim, we are teaching them how to save their own lives.

    • The USA Swimming Foundation works on both a macro and micro level. Each year, the Foundation embarks on a national awareness tour. Now in its fourth season, the Make a Splash Tour with Cullen Jones presented by ConocoPhillips visits cities across America to spread the learn to swim message among children, families and communities.
    • Through our Make a Splash local partner program, we provide funding and technical support to learn-to-swim providers, helping them to provide swimming lessons to kids that might not otherwise have the opportunity. By targeting these efforts in diverse and low-income communities, we are able to save the lives of those most likely to experience a tragic accidental drowning.

    Come learn about the USA Swimming Foundation and see how you can Save Lives by becoming involved with our Make a Splash initiative.

  • How Private Swim Schools are Making an ImpactAdd to cart: $19.95

    How Private Swim Schools are Making an Impact Wayne Ziegler, Safer 3 Water Safety Foundation/US Swim School Association

    Abstract

    In recent years, government agencies, academia, non-profit groups and the aquatics industries have come to a consensus on the importance of learning to swim as a component of a layers of protection water strategy AND a lifetime sport that promotes physical well-being and personal development. The challenge remains to effectively communicate the value of swimming and meet the needs of communities for water safety training; including leaning to swim. Key to sustainable outreach for water safer communities is vision and funding. The learn to swim industry is in a unique position that can help to address both of these issues. The United States Swim School Association is an association of quality schools devoted to aquatic education for lifelong safety, fun and health. The association has members throughout the United States and abroad with a reach of over one million students a year. The US Swim School Association vision is complimentary to the visions of non-profit organizations, like the National Drowning Prevention Alliance (NDPA) and the Swim for Life Foundation. Swim school owners have demonstrated a willingness to actively support water safety outreach and training with time and energy to provide and solicit financial support. This presentation will discuss how the private swim schools, as represented by US Swim School Association, are making an impact through grass roots efforts and partnerships with non-profit organizations like NDPA and Swim for Life.



Category 3: Facility Management

  • Creating a Sustainability Plan for Aquatic FacilitiesAdd to cart: $19.95

    Creating a Sustainability Plan for Aquatic Facilities Connie Sue Centrella, MBA, CSO, Keiser University

    Abstract

    Objectives:
     a. Provide a guideline for creating a sustainability plan for aquatic facilities
     b. Describe the factors to analyze when crafting a sustainability policy
     c. Methods to implement new technologies to create a viable sustainable facility.

  • Lifeguard Rescue Reporting System of the US & Canada – 4 Years of DataAdd to cart: $19.95

    Lifeguard Rescue Reporting System of the US & Canada – 4 Years of Data Roy Fielding, MA, NSPF-I, WSIT, LGIT, University of NC - Charlotte

    Abstract

    This reporting system is designed to gather information about how lifeguards respond to all types of water-related incidents on the job. The ultimate goal of this work is to help various training agencies learn more about what is actually taking place when lifeguards are called upon to respond to an emergency (e.g. environmental conditions at the time of rescue, how lifeguards identify the emergency, type of equipment used in the rescue).

    The Lifeguard Rescue Reporting System was conceived through conversations with a number of aquatic professionals with vast experience in the open water, waterpark and swimming pool environments who were meeting to form the United States Lifeguard Standards Coalition. The project is currently endorsed by the American Red Cross, the Canadian Red Cross and the United States Lifesaving Association. The data is being collected by Roy Fielding, faculty member at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte and a member of the American Red Cross Scientific Advisory Council.

    The data that is entered online is anonymous in an attempt to protect the lifeguards or others entering the information. The Lifeguarding Rescue Reporting System will be available to lifeguards for years to come. Having longitudinal data will help aquatic professionals throughout the industry to understand what is involved in the rescues and may impact how lifeguards are trained in the future.

    Objectives:
     A. Position of rescuer before making the rescue.
     B. The distance the rescuers have to travel to make the rescue.
     C. The most common depth victims are being rescued.
     D. Types of rescues being made and the equipment used.
     E. Comparison with the Canadian reporting data.
     F. The time of day most rescues are being made.
     G. Most common age of those needing rescue.
     H. Medical issues that are most common for guarded pools.
     I. How did the guard recognize the victim needed help.
     J. What other individuals were involved in the rescue.
     K. What type of equipment was used in the course of the rescue.

  • Scanning, Target, Assess, Rescue & RemoveAdd to cart: $19.95

    Scanning, Target, Assess, Rescue & Remove Robert E. Ogoreuc, M.Ed., EMT-B, Slippery Rock University (Ogoreuc_01)

    Abstract

    The purpose of this session is to provide lifeguard instructors, training officers, and lifeguards with a basic tool to use when educating lifeguards in the methods and techniques for responding to aquatic emergencies. The acronym S.T.A.R.R. was developed to assist lifeguards when training and performing key elements of an aquatic rescue. S.T.A.R.R. stands for Scan, Target, Assess, Rescue, and Removal of a victim of an aquatic emergency.

    Scan – Using preventive lifeguarding techniques the lifeguard on duty should be vigilant and observant of the water they are watching. During the scanning phase the lifeguard will select the best observation techniques specific to the design of the facility, location of the lifeguard, lifeguard chairs, number of swimmers, activity of the swimmers, their swimming ability, and the changing environmental conditions the lifeguard is faced with while on duty.

    While the lifeguards are scanning their water they should constantly be evaluating the swimmers ability, activities, and changing water conditions. This evaluation process will assist the lifeguard in determining which patrons are at higher risk than others. The lifeguard has now initiated targeting individuals who may be in need of preventive actions and possible rescue.

    Target – The targeting phase can best be described as locking on to individuals that exhibit signs of fatigue, panic, distress, and potentially the Instinctive Drowning Response (IDR). Distressed individuals will need to be signaled, alerted and waved into shallower water or prohibited from engaging in the activity that they are performing of possible removal from the water if conditions and swimming level warrant. If no response is initiated by the patron or the individual is non-responsive or has entered the IDR, the lifeguard will then have to quickly initiate the pre-planned emergency action plan for responding to that incident.

    Assess – Assessment begins from the moment the lifeguard is on duty and starts to watch their water. During this phase of S.T.A.R.R. the lifeguards focus is on the assessment of the bathers in their zone while targeting and locking on to any potential victim. Once the lifeguard recognizes the signs of a distressed or drowning incident they need to have the appropriate rescue equipment and choose the best method to approach the victim, maintain visual contact and watch for behavioral changes in the victim.

    Rescue – Rescue is the point where contact, control, and support of the victim takes place. The lifeguard should attempt to keep the rescue floatation device (Rescue can or Rescue tube) between the rescuer and the victim. The lifeguard should try to verbally calm the victim and provide the best stabilization that will provide both air and support to the victim.

    Removal – Removal is the last point of the S.T.A.R.R. method. The lifeguard should evaluate the best route of extraction and if they need additional assistance to remove the victim from the water. The lifeguard should be monitoring the condition of the victim throughout the rescue. Once on land continue to monitor vital signs and tend to any medical needs. A debriefing should occur among supervisors, and lifeguards evaluating the incident. Record vital information on the facilities incident report form and insure that all rescuers are prepared mentally and physically able to return to work.

  • Understanding How to Communicate with Fire, EMS & Police Before an IncidentAdd to cart: $19.95

    Understanding How to Communicate with Fire, EMS & Police Before an Incident Robert E. Ogoreuc, M.Ed., EMT-B, Slippery Rock University (Ogoreuc_02)

    Abstract

    This presentation will discuss Incident Command System and emergency management. The goals of the presentation include how to mitigate and manage vulnerabilities to hazards and then create a plan to react as quickly as possible in order to save lives, prevent injury, and reduce property loss.

    An overview will be given of the Incident Command System and critical elements that need to be addressed for effective scene management. Those elements include: ICS fundamentals, Unified Command, Incident / Event Assessment & Incident Objectives, Planning Process, Incident Resource Management, Demobilization, Transfer of Command, and Closeout Procedures.

    It will stress that all emergency action plans should be understood, practiced, and evaluated. The roles and actions of team members need to be discussed so everyone is prepared during an emergency. Such plans should be included in all facility policies and procedure manuals. It is a critical piece for all employee orientation. When developing such EAP’s (Emergency Action Plans), attention must be given to facility design, equipment, staffing, communication, as well as all post emergency procedures. It is also important to identify the equipment needs for different emergencies. It is imperative that all stay updated on current rescue technology.

    Special consideration must be given to the responsibilities of various team members. Knowing who is responsible for commanding the scene as well as the other various roles must be prepared ahead of time. The subsequent actions that are taken once an emergency exists should be well thought out and practiced. Activating the EAP, following rescue protocols, notifying the chain of command, interviewing witnesses, recording and reporting, replacement of equipment and the debriefing at the end, are all critical pieces to successful emergency management. All must be prepared.

    Communication is the key to successful incident command operations. Being able to listen and respond appropriately is of utmost importance. These skills need to be discussed and practiced in order for successful execution to occur. A designed public information officer should be the only one who communicates to the media in such incidents.

    The process of emergency management is critical to being able to successfully handle "the unexpected!"

  • A Systems Approach to Improving Program ProfitabilityAdd to cart: $19.95

    A Systems Approach to Improving Program Profitability Rho Henry Olaisen, MPH, Hydro Institute

    Abstract

    Background: Aquatic program operations, long recognized as both costly yet worthwhile social investments, has since the most recent U.S. economic decline of 2007 been subject to extensive cutbacks, closures and infrastructure changes, within municipal, for-profit and non-profit sectors alike. Budget shortfalls have led struggling Park & Recreational facilities to outsource services; for-profit businesses are switching price-volume-mix models, while non-profit, community-based organizations are struggling with obtaining donated revenues to fill in the gap from losses in fee-for- services. Across all sectors, improved profitability, partnerships and best-practice sharing are considered central strategies to avoid closures. Simultaneously with negative financial performances, the aquatic industry is struggling to gain external validity. Consumers, educators and associations alike are pushing for evidence-based practices in curriculum, training and staff development. Facing challenges both financially and structurally, aquatic programs can benefit from learning how allied fields have faced similar challenges. Unlike land-based educational centers, aquatic program businesses have thus far limited use of system-wide best practices of assessment, communication and operations.

    Frameworks: We relied on Stages of change by Prochaska (1977) and agent-based modeling by Schelling (1971) as theoretical frameworks.

    Hypothesis: Our hypothesis was that reliance on theoretical frameworks improves organizational performance through three pathways: dissemination, quality assurance and evaluation.

    Methodology: Our methods were two-fold: a 5 years prospective social impact analysis and conceptual optimization modeling.

    Results: At the organizational level, results included tripled revenues, improved staff competencies, 25% increase in staff wages, net profitability and increased external validity; at the social network level, reliance on theories led to increased network complexity; and at the universal level, an agent-based model emerged to improve health & wellness operations.

    Conclusion: Our conclusion is that reliance on theoretical frameworks, notably systems science and agent-based modeling (ABMs) provide a structured process to improve service chain optimization.

    Implication for practice: This presentation has implication for practice as it relates to theoretical frameworks and methodologies that can support aquatic program industry optimization towards evidence-based practices and self-sustainable operations.

  • iShare – Principles of Successful Programming and Idea Sharing ForumAdd to cart: $19.95

    iShare – Principles of Successful Programming and Idea Sharing Forum William Ramos, MS, Indiana University

    Abstract

    iShare will focus on basic principles for successful program and event planning in the aquatic environment. Several ideas will be shared by the presenter within a wide range of programming options to enhance quality, create a sense of community, and generate income at your facility. Participants will also be asked to take part in an event/program sharing forum that will occur within the session as well. Come ready to share!

  • Managing Multiple Pools, Patrons and PersonalitiesAdd to cart: $19.95

    Managing Multiple Pools, Patrons and Personalities Sean Sepela, Rutgers University Recreation

    Abstract

    There are an increasing number of managers and management companies representing multiple pools and operations. The challenges a manager or supervisor faces each day is multiplied by the amount of staff they employ and the programs that use their pools. This presentation will include various tools and tips for managers of multiple facilities with any size staff. We will explore areas of technology and software programs that enhance efficiency and the importance of a consistency in training from orientation to promotion to supervisory positions. We will also discuss numerous strategies in teambuilding as it pertains to Emergency Action Plans and in-service trainings for staff development.

  • How Design is Used to Mitigate RiskAdd to cart: $19.95

    How Design is Used to Mitigate Risk Douglass G. Whiteaker, Water Technology, Inc.

    Abstract

    Today’s evolving multigenerational aquatic complexes are making waves in the industry offering an endless variety of water features, attractions and uses, targeting people of all interests and ages. Their continued evolution presents new challenges, not only to facility owners but also to public health officials, operators, and designers. Solutions to these challenges are crucial to the safety and welfare of aquatic facility patrons, employees, long-term operational sustainability, and user memorable experience.

    Factors of design such as location, size, features, and mechanical and chemical systems directly impact operations, public health and risk management. The relationship of aquatic amenities and their parameters have the power to reduce or contribute to the hazard potential. Operators of aquatic facilities must understand these design influences and develop policies and programs to minimize facility risk. Issues from lifeguard sightlines to depth transition points are addressed from the standpoint of safety and drowning risks. Physical, visual, audio, hydrological and chemical risk factors are all present in an aquatic facility.

    Discover the interrelated functions of circulation, filtration, disinfection and supplemental sanitation as they relate to maintaining water quality and a safe, healthy environment. The filtration methodology used in combination with alternate oxidation and disinfection systems such as ozone and UV (Ultraviolet) are vital to the success of a facility and critical to the safety of patrons and staff. Explore the different methodologies and emerging trends of on-site disinfection, and analyze system benefits and limitations in light of minimizing risk.

    Presented in a technical, practical and applicable approach, this session will identify solutions and offer guidance in overcoming these new and evolving challenges in the aquatic facility environment so critical to guest safety, public health and the aquatic experience. This session will examine the various issues of managing risks associated with drowning, injury, water-borne illness, respiratory afflictions and other hazards of an aquatic facility. It is essential to understand the benefits and limitations of proposed solutions in order to manage risks, protect health, and properly operate aquatic facility attractions.

  • So You Want to Be an Aquatics Director – Building Competency to SucceedAdd to cart: $19.95

    So You Want to Be an Aquatics Director – Building Competency to Succeed Leland Yarger, MS, ED, Ball State University

    Abstract

    The aquatic director often functions in a diverse set of situations for organizations with aquatic related assets. This individual (especially in smaller facilities) is frequently the “Go To” person when water related facilities and programs are involved. As such, the director needs a variety of abilities and knowledge base to support the organization.

    We will discuss opportunities to enhance the Aquatic Director’s Education, Experience and Credentials.



Category 4: Health Benefits

  • Aquatic Solutions for Managing Pain in Persons with Multiple SclerosisAdd to cart: $19.95

    Aquatic Solutions for Managing Pain in Persons with Multiple Sclerosis Adelaida Maria Castro-Sanchez, Ph.D., Universidad de Almeria - Spain

    Abstract

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic demyelinating neurological disease afflicting young and middle-aged adults that impairs coordination, strength, cognition, and sensation. It is the most frequent disabling neurologic disease among young and middle-aged adults in North America and Europe. Several Studies have reported that complementary and alternative therapies can have positive effects against pain in these patients. For this reason, we performed an experimental study to determine the effectiveness of hydrotherapy to modify pain, quality of life, disability, fatigue, depression and spasm in multiple sclerosis patients. In this randomized controlled trial, the patients were randomly assigned to an Ai-Chi exercise group (n= 36) or relaxation exercise group (n=37). The Ai-Chi Exercise program was conducted in a swimming pool, and all exercises (16 movements) were performed in shoulder-depth water, use a combination of deep breathing and slow, broad movements of the arms, legs, and torso to work on balance, strength, relaxation, flexibility and breathing. Relaxing Tai-Chi music was played to the participants during sessions, which lasted 60 minutes, beginning and ending with 10 minutes of relaxation in the water. In the control group, the patients underwent the same exercise program followed by the experimental group during relaxations periods but in supine position on an exercise mat. No ambient music was played during these control sessions. In this study, a twice-weekly 20-week Ai-Chi aquatic exercise program significantly reduced pain levels in multiple sclerosis patients, and improved fatigue, spasm, depression, and quality of life, with no adverse effects. These beneficial effects lasted for 4 and 10 weeks after the end of the program and were superior to those obtained by controls patients after and exercise program in a therapy room.

  • Land vs. Water Based Exercise on Arterial Health in Diseased PopulationsAdd to cart: $19.95

    Land vs. Water Based Exercise on Arterial Health in Diseased Populations Paul Chantler, Ph.D., West Virgina University

    Abstract

    Dr. Chantler’s talk will provide insights into the effects of how exercise training performed on land water based exercise alters the structure and function of the arterial system and its interaction with the heart in individuals with cardiovascular diseases. The talk will identify gaps in existing research, and potential future research opportunities with respect to improving the health of the arteries in diseased populations.

  • Increasing Awareness of Aquatics: The World Health Organization and the Evidence Base for Aquatic TherapyAdd to cart: $19.95

    Increasing Awareness of Aquatics: The World Health Organization and the Evidence Base for Aquatic Therapy Daniel Daly, Ph.D., KU Leuven, Belgium

    Abstract

    Balneotherapy and spa therapy are common treatments for low back pain and the costs are sometimes reimbursed. A systematic review however found only 5 RCTs. Judged by self-reported pain on a visual analogue scale, the treatments were modestly effective (Rheumatology 2006;45: 880-4). A more important finding was the mismatch between the popularity of these interventions and the paucity of evaluations of their efficacy. (British Medical Journal, 2006). Recently the World Health Organization produced “Guidelines for safe recreational waters”. It is now the purpose to write “Guidelines on health promotion and risk management in swimming pools and spas”. Up to 10 populations of topics will be dealt with by specialized authors. In this presentation the concept and strategy as well as some results of this work in progress will be discussed.

  • Changes in Physiological, Cognitive and Health Related Quality of Life Measures Following an Introductory SCUBA Diving Program for Individuals with Disabilities. A Pilot Study.Add to cart: $19.95

    Changes in Physiological, Cognitive and Health Related Quality of Life Measures Following an Introductory SCUBA Diving Program for Individuals with Disabilities. A Pilot Study. Lisa DePasquale, PT, DSc, ECS,

    Abstract

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate if there are changes to scores on cognitive and health related quality of life assessment tools for individuals with disabilities following participation in a SCUBA diving program for individuals with disabilities. It also aims to investigate if there are changes in blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate and pulmonary function for individuals with disabilities following participation in a SCUBA diving program for individuals with disabilities. Overall it will serve to gather information that may lead to the development of new hypothesis regarding the impact of SCUBA diving on individuals with disabilities and potential therapeutic benefit.

    Introduction: Adaptive sports for people with disabilities is a growing field and interest in adaptive SCUBA diving is increasing.1 Diveheart is an existing program, founded in 2001, that introduces and teaches SCUBA diving to people with disabilities (e.g.-TBI, spinal cord injury, amputation, impaired vision). Current research indicates that with the proper considerations, SCUBA diving is safe for individuals with disabilities.1 Anecdotal evidence from Diveheart staff and participants indicates that SCUBA diving may improve the quality of life and function of participants, suggesting a need to explore the potential therapeutic benefit of SCUBA diving.

    Disabilities whether physical, emotional, cognitive and physiological can impact quality of life resulting in altered perception, social issues and lifespan health concerns. Individuals with disabilities are also at increased risk of physical deconditioning due to having a more sedentary lifestyle secondary to physical impairments or decreased social involvement.3 Effective treatments for people with physical, emotional, cognitive and physiological disabilities are continually under investigation and there are many new promising interventions.2 This study intends to contribute to the understanding of how SCUBA diving impacts individuals with Disabilities for safety reasons and to explore potential therapeutic benefit. Outcomes to be considered in this study include a health related quality of life survey and simple physiological measures such as heart rate, respiratory rate and a pulmonary function test.

  • Let's Get the Rear in GearAdd to cart: $19.95

    Let's Get the Rear in Gear Emily Dunlap, PT, Lakeway Aquatic Therapy

    Abstract

    Research indicates a significant correlation between diminished gluteal function and knee/hip/back pain, postural control and athletic performance. During this presentation theories will be discussed on how diminished gluteal function can arise from muscle weakness or gluteal inhibition. The role of the gluteus medius and maximus will be reviewed along with emphasis for functional training during rehabilitation. Justification for rehabilitation in the aquatic environment for certain patients will be discussed along with a review of research to support the use of aquatic therapy to help get the ‘rear in gear’. Case studies will be used to give practical examples of specific aquatic exercises and manual techniques that can be used in the clinic immediately following the conference.

  • Aquatic Therapy for Children with Autism Spectrum DisordersAdd to cart: $19.95

    Aquatic Therapy for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Beth Ennis, PT, EdD, PCS, ATP, All About Families, PLLC

    Abstract

    Numbers of children diagnosed with ASD are growing, as is the search for effective intervention to improve function and participation. This session will discuss the use of aquatics for children with ASD to improve skills and engage in community activities. Results of a three year study on short bursts of aquatic services will be discussed, and specific cases will be shared.

  • Motor Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury Randomized Trial Comparing Aquatic Therapy and Robotic-Assisted Weight Support Treadmill TrainingAdd to cart: $19.95

    Motor Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury Randomized Trial Comparing Aquatic Therapy and Robotic-Assisted Weight Support Treadmill Training Paula Richley Geigle, PT, Ph.D.,

    Abstract

    Background: Limited people with motor incomplete spinal cord injury (MISCI) ambulate on a regular basis. These individuals also exhibit secondary complications of immobility including loss of cardiovascular fitness. Body-weight supported treadmill training with robotic guidance is an emerging technique aimed at improving function and fitness. Some clinical efficacy data exists, but formal scientifically based protocols outlining effective delivery methods are still limited. Aquatic therapy, another treatment medium for individuals with MISCI, although frequently used by practicing therapists, also lacks empirical evidence for either improved locomotor function or cardiovascular fitness.

    Objectives/Hypothesis: The goal of this work is to compare the impact of aquatic therapy versus robotically guided body weight supported treadmill training (RGBWSTT) on ambulatory function and cardiovascular fitness in chronic persons with MISCI.

    Design and Methods: We initiated a randomized, controlled, dual-center, crossover study for 36 individuals with chronic (greater than 12 months) motor incomplete spinal cord injury at the C4 to T12 levels. Eligible participants at two spinal cord injury centers (Kernan Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation and Shepherd Center) will be randomized to either three months, three times weekly of a progressive aerobic aquatic therapy program, or a RGBWSTT program followed by cross over to the other intervention for an additional three months. Measures of ambulatory function and cardiovascular fitness will be assessed at baseline, time of crossover, and at completion of the second phase of exercise. Functional ability will be measured by timed walks. Home and community free living ambulatory activity will be assessed by step activity monitoring, Gait Rite, and the Spinal Cord Independence Measure. Cardiovascular fitness will be measured by open circuit spirometry during arm cycle ergometry, and serum glucose and insulin studies will also be performed to assess any changes in insulin resistance with these interventions.

    Results: This three year study is underway and is currently recruiting subjects. Initial challenges in coordinating the randomization and interventions across the two sites involved were overcome. While formal results from the study are not yet available, we have demonstrated the feasibility of this type of research.

    Conclusion: A complex dual site exercise intervention study involving aquatic and robotic treadmill therapy in individuals with MISCI is feasible. This type of evaluation holds the potential to provide evidence based information on the efficacy of these interventions with regard to both functional mobility and cardiovascular fitness.

  • Capturing Women into Your Aquatic Therapy Services: Proof, Practical & ProbableAdd to cart: $19.95

    Capturing Women into Your Aquatic Therapy Services: Proof, Practical & Probable Jean Irion, PT, EdD, SCS, ATC, University of South Alabama

    Abstract

    This presentation will include suggestions for incorporating women’s health therapeutic and health/wellness services within an aquatic practice. Conditions such as prenatal and postpartum musculoskeletal dysfunction, gestational diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis, breast cancer and lymphedema, multiple sclerosis, and fibromyalgia will be presented. Discussion of the female athlete and fitness/wellness programming for women will also be included. Evidence (“the proof”), where available, to support interventions will be addressed. Lastly, the “practical and probable” of bringing women to your aquatic services will be discussed.

  • Swimming and Cardiovascular Health: What Do We Know?Add to cart: $19.95

    Swimming and Cardiovascular Health: What Do We Know? Hirofumi Tanaka, Ph.D., University of Texas at Austin

    Abstract

    Swimming is an attractive form of exercise as it is easily accessible, inexpensive, and isotonic. Indeed swimming is one of the most popular and most practiced forms of physical activity. Since swimming is a rhythmic, dynamic form of endurance exercise involving a large muscle mass, it is a potentially useful alternative to land-based exercises insofar as the efficacy and safety of swimming can be assured. Surprisingly, very little is known about the effects of regular swimming for health promotion and disease prevention. Swimming is very different from land-based exercise in many respects due to water immersion and the prone body position. Physiologic responses to swimming are also affected by many factors that are unique to swimming, including hydrostatic pressure, facial immersion, and high thermal conductivity of water. As a result, research findings obtained in land-based exercise training studies cannot be extrapolated simply to swimming. In this symposium, I will address general questions such as; do swimmers who train just as hard, as long, and as frequent as other athletes in land-based exercise modes, have the same favorable risk profiles for coronary heart disease (CHD)? Do swimming training interventions reduce risk factors for CHD?



Category 5: Other Bits of Wisdom

  • Layers of Protection – How to Protect Swimmers and Prevent Water-Related TragediesAdd to cart: $19.95

    Layers of Protection – How to Protect Swimmers and Prevent Water-Related Tragedies Karen Cohn, The ZAC Foundation

    Abstract

    I’m here on behalf of my son, Zachary Archer Cohn. Zachary died tragically at the age of 6 due to pool drain entrapment and sadly, our family is just one of many who has lost a child in a water-related tragedy. As the parent of a child that has fallen victim to drain entrapment, I cannot stand idly by and allow others to experience the loss that our family has experienced. Through education and awareness of the dangers presented by pools and spas, the ZAC Foundation – the water safety Foundation my husband and I founded in Zachary’s honor – seeks to inform industry leaders of these risks while educating them on valuable ways tragedies like ours can be avoided. As a safety advocate, I plan to encourage public and residential pool owners and operators to adopt layers of protection, including VGB compliant anti-entrapment drain covers, fences around the perimeter of pools and spas, and most importantly, educate on vital water safety topics. Since April of 2011, The ZAC Foundation in partnership with Boys & Girls Clubs of America, YMCA’s and The Drowning Prevention Coalition, has hosted numerous water safety camps to teach the public, especially low-income children, on the significance of water safety through swimming classes, classroom curriculum, and engagement with First Responders. These efforts, in concert with continued pool drain research and innovation are the best way we, in the water safety community, can safeguard our children around areas of open water.

  • An Enzymatic Method to Detect Pseudomonas aeruginosa within 24 HoursAdd to cart: $19.95

    An Enzymatic Method to Detect Pseudomonas aeruginosa within 24 Hours Gil Dichter, IDEXX Laboratories

    Abstract

    Several states presently regulate both public and private pools and spas for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while many other states rely on the chemical test for chlorine or bromine levels. However, this may not be as reliable as testing specifically for Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    If the pool or spas are not properly maintained chemically, it may become a breeding ground for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It is often not completely eliminated with proper disinfection and pH control. Therefore, it may always be present and must always be controlled. If present, it can cause a number of health problems including skin rash and other skin infections, ear infections, urinary tract infections and in some instances more serious illness. It is an opportunistic pathogen and can resist high levels of chlorine.

    Present membrane filtration methods for Pseudomonas aeruginosa require a minimum of 48 hours with confirmation adding another 24-48 hours for final verification. An innovative method called Pseudalert was specifically designed for either Presence-Absence or Quantification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa for swimming pools and spa waters with results in 24 hours. This test is based on a bacterial enzyme technology that signals the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa through the hydrolysis of a fluorogenic substrate present in the reagent. Actively growing strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa have an enzyme that cleaves the substrate to produce a blue fluorescence under 365 nm UV light.

    Studies completed both in Europe and in the US will be presented comparing Pseudalert to ISO method 16266 and to Standard Methods 9213E, both membrane filtration methods that require confirmation. Natural contaminated samples were evaluated, but many were absent of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and natural samples had to be spiked with several ATCC/NTCC strains to do a comparison. Comparison to ISO method 16266 for natural contaminated pools and spas had a p value (>0.05)=0.082. Comparison against Standard methods 9213E resulted in a p value (>0.05)=1.0. This method can detect Pseudomonas aeruginosa ICFU/100mL. High background flora did not interfere with the ability to detect and enumerate this bacterium. Pseudalert is equivalent to these methods with results in 24 hours. The majority of natural samples were absent of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and samples had to be spiked with ATCC or NTCC strains.

    This new method is fact, accurate and easy to use. With this new technology, owners of private pools and spas can be assured that their pools and spas are free of this bacterium and are safe to use.

  • Evaluating the Efficacy of Ozone Treatment Systems Against Protozoa, Bacteria and VirusesAdd to cart: $19.95

    Evaluating the Efficacy of Ozone Treatment Systems Against Protozoa, Bacteria and Viruses Robert Donofrio, M.S., Ph.D., NSF International

    Abstract

    Currently there a number of commercial antimicrobial treatment approaches for use in recreational water. These systems may incorporate halogen disinfection (i.e. chlorine, bromine), size exclusion (i.e. mechanical filtration), and even ultraviolet light irradiation. Ozone, a treatment option used more commonly in the drinking water sector, has gained recent popularity for use in addressing microbiological contamination of swimming pools and spas. This presentation will review a test scheme for evaluating the antimicrobial efficacy of a commercial ozonation system. As obtaining an accurate assessment of a treatment system’s antimicrobial efficacy in recreational water is difficult given the large scale and high flow rates of the water systems, a laboratory test system was designed to mimic the water conditions and potential microbial contaminants found in swimming pools. This system was utilized to evaluate the performance of an in situ ozone disinfection device against four microorganisms: Cryptosporidium parvum, bacteriopghage MS2, Enterococcus faecium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  • Aquatic History: Splash to the PastAdd to cart: $19.95

    Aquatic History: Splash to the Past Charles Logan, University of Texas Austin

    Abstract

    This presentation will take a historical look at aquatic facilities and practices in America from the last century. Historical photographs, drawings, video, memorabilia and book excerpts will be presented. We will explore the early bath houses, plunges, spring pools up to today’s modern facilities. Examples will be presented from across the United States.

    1. Participants will learn how aquatic facilities have developed from the local swimming hole to the advanced natatoriums and waterparks.
    2. Participants will explore some of the changes brought about in aquatic recreation, therapy and competition.
    3. Participants will explore the history behind the technology in filtration, circulation and sanitation.
    4. Participants will learn to develop an appreciation for our past and for the people who have brought us to where we are today.
  • Understanding, Testing & Certification of UV Systems for Recreational and Drinking WaterAdd to cart: $19.95

    Understanding, Testing & Certification of UV Systems for Recreational and Drinking Water Rich Martin, NSF International

    Abstract

    NSF International (NSF) has several standards and programs involving the testing and certification of performance and health effects of water treatment and distribution products for many end uses such as residential drinking water treatment, industrial and waste water, ballast water treatment, public or municipal drinking water treatment as well as the pool, spa, and recreational water treatment. NSF/ANSI Standard 50: Equipment for Pool, Spa, Hot Tub and Other Recreational Water Facilities is the all-encompassing product and system evaluation criteria for evaluation of products and materials used at recreational water facilities. This presentation will discuss harmonized testing and certification requirements, new developments and criteria that have been developed for the Drinking Water and Recreational Water and Aquatics Markets, specifically evaluation, testing and certification of ultraviolet (UV) light systems.



Category 6: RWI Prevention

  • Evaluating Circulation Systems and the Influence on Water QualityAdd to cart: $19.95

    Evaluating Circulation Systems and the Influence on Water Quality James Amburgey, Ph.D., University of NC - Charlotte

    Abstract

    Swimming pools are designed to perform filtration and supplemental disinfection (e.g. ozone or UV) as the water is pumped through a side-stream treatment system. The efficiency of the circulation system in returning water to the filtration system for treatment can significantly impact the concentration of viable human pathogens in the pool. This research focused on evaluating three (3) methods of measuring the performance of the recirculation system in returning water for treatment. The three methods were 1) dye studies, 2) flotation tests, and 3) salt tracers. This presentation will provide instructions on how to properly conduct these test procedures as well as how to determine whether your pool passed the test. A mathematical model will be used to demonstrate the impact of poor recirculation efficiency on waterborne disease risk.

  • Model Aquatic Health Code: Planning for Continual Renewal and Research NeedsAdd to cart: $19.95

    Model Aquatic Health Code: Planning for Continual Renewal and Research Needs Michael Beach, Ph.D. & Rob Blake, MPH, REHS, Center for Disease Control & Prevention

    Abstract

    MAHC Version 1.0 and Beyond

    The MAHC Version 1.0 has arrived. Each module has been posted for public comment with the final version posted this summer. Hundreds of comments have been submitted to CDC for consideration and all comments have been responded to publicly. This session will cover the progress on the MAHC as it becomes a comprehensive tool designed for adoption by state and local environmental public health authorities. This will include discussion of the key public comments received, the responses and resulting changes, and the data gaps that need to be filled to better protect public health in the future. Discussion will also include the rationale and the science behind the MAHC language, particularly emphasizing the Annex, which provides explanations, references, and highlights the research gaps. The future of MAHC Version 1.0 and opportunities for improvement will also be discussed.

  • A Multi-Pronged Cryptosporidiosis Prevention Effort – Utah 2008 & BeyondAdd to cart: $19.95

    A Multi-Pronged Cryptosporidiosis Prevention Effort – Utah 2008 & Beyond Michele Hlavsa, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention

    Abstract

    Introduction: During the 2007 summer swim season, Utah (UT) experienced a statewide cryptosporidiosis outbreak. Almost 5,700 outbreak-related cases were identified across the state. Of 1,506 patients for whom data were available, 1,209 (80%) reported swimming in a total of approximately 450 recreational water venues (RWVs) within 14 days before illness onset. As part of the effort to control this outbreak, public health officials required pool operators to hyperchlorinate (i.e., maintain high free chlorine levels for a prolonged period of time [e.g., 20 ppm for 12.75 hours] to kill 99.9% of Cryptosporidium, the extremely chlorine-tolerant parasite that caused this outbreak) public aquatic facilities. Given that response to community-wide cryptosporidiosis outbreaks is resource intensive (e.g., Salt Lake County pool operators reported a shortage of needed pool chemicals) and swimmers are the source of Cryptosporidium contamination of RWVs, the public needs to be educated about healthy swimming behaviors that could help keep Cryptosporidium out of the water in the first place. Prior to the 2008 summer swim season, Utah launched a multi-pronged cryptosporidiosis prevention effort, which included a multi-media campaign to educate the public on how to prevent the transmission of the Cryptosporidium. To date, only anecdotal data have supported such education efforts.

    Methods: To assess the effectiveness of Utah health education campaign two studies were conducted. The UT Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System asked UT residents questions about the education campaign; the national Health Styles survey assessed healthy swimming knowledge.

    Results: Preliminary analysis suggests that UT residents remembered the campaign and were more knowledgeable about healthy swimming than residents of other states. UT reported no cryptosporidiosis outbreaks in 2008 and only 48 cases (i.e., a return to baseline case levels).

    Conclusions: The UT healthy swimming education campaign successfully reached residents and might have increased their knowledge about healthy swimming. The UT healthy swimming education campaign was also part of a multi-pronged effort that successfully returned Cryptosporidium transmission back to baseline levels, which is unusual for locations that recently experienced a community-wide cryptosporidiosis outbreak.

  • The Science Behind the MAHC: Disinfection, Operations & MaintenanceAdd to cart: $19.95

    The Science Behind the MAHC: Disinfection, Operations & Maintenance John Linn, PE, SeaWorld & Bob Vincent, RS, MPA, Florida Dept. of Health

    Abstract

    MAHC Version 1.0 and Beyond

    The MAHC Version 1.0 has arrived. Each module has been posted for public comment with the final version posted this summer. Hundreds of comments have been submitted to CDC for consideration and all comments have been responded to publicly. This session will cover the progress on the MAHC as it becomes a comprehensive tool designed for adoption by state and local environmental public health authorities. This will include discussion of the key public comments received, the responses and resulting changes, and the data gaps that need to be filled to better protect public health in the future. Discussion will also include the rationale and the science behind the MAHC language, particularly emphasizing the Annex, which provides explanations, references, and highlights the research gaps. The future of MAHC Version 1.0 and opportunities for improvement will also be discussed.

  • The Science Behind the MAHC: Circulation, Ventilation and Air QualityAdd to cart: $19.95

    The Science Behind the MAHC: Circulation, Ventilation and Air Quality Colleen Maitoza, Sacramento County EMD & Jim Dunn, PE, Aquatic Development Group

    Abstract

    MAHC Version 1.0 and Beyond

    The MAHC Version 1.0 has arrived. Each module has been posted for public comment with the final version posted this summer. Hundreds of comments have been submitted to CDC for consideration and all comments have been responded to publicly. This session will cover the progress on the MAHC as it becomes a comprehensive tool designed for adoption by state and local environmental public health authorities. This will include discussion of the key public comments received, the responses and resulting changes, and the data gaps that need to be filled to better protect public health in the future. Discussion will also include the rationale and the science behind the MAHC language, particularly emphasizing the Annex, which provides explanations, references, and highlights the research gaps. The future of MAHC Version 1.0 and opportunities for improvement will also be discussed.

  • Going for the Kill: Considerations and Constraints with Pool DisinfectionAdd to cart: $19.95

    Going for the Kill: Considerations and Constraints with Pool Disinfection Jennifer Murphy, Ph.D., Centers for Disease Control & Prevention

    Abstract

    Chlorine disinfection is the primary barrier to the spread of microbes, such as E.coli and norovirus, in treated recreational water venues (e.g., pools and interactive fountains). Unlike ultraviolet and ozone disinfection, chlorine disinfection provides residual disinfection. Resource-intensive hyperchlorination is also used to remediate treated recreational water venues following diarrheal fecal contamination events (also known as high-risk Cryptosporidium events) and in response to outbreaks caused by Cryptosporidium. While most microbes are efficiently killed by chlorine, the extremely chlorine-tolerant microbe Cryptosporidium can survive in properly chlorinated venues, where free chlorine levels are maintained at 1–3 ppm, for up to 11 days. There has been a significant increase in the number of recreational water illness outbreaks associated with swimming in the last 10 years. This overall increase in the outbreaks is being driven by an almost 400% increase in the number of outbreaks caused by Cryptosporidium and associated with swimming in treated recreational water venues. Considering that swimming is one of the most popular sports activities in the United States, with at least 360 million swimming visits per year, effective chlorine disinfection is essential to protect public health. We will examine a number of aspects of chlorine disinfection for pool remediation, including types of disinfectants available, how microorganisms are inactivated, determination of CT values, the effect of water chemistry on disinfection efficacy, and factors related to choosing a disinfectant. New research data will be presented on the effect of cyanuric acid on chlorine inactivation of Cryptosporidium and other microbes. New research data will also be presented on the effectiveness of chlorine-dioxide disinfection as an alternative to hyperchlorination for inactivating Cryptosporidium.

  • The Science Behind the MAHC: Hygiene & Regulatory Program AdministrationAdd to cart: $19.95

    The Science Behind the MAHC: Hygiene & Regulatory Program Administration Doug Sackett, NY State Dept. of Health

    Abstract

    MAHC Version 1.0 and Beyond

    The MAHC Version 1.0 has arrived. Each module has been posted for public comment with the final version posted this summer. Hundreds of comments have been submitted to CDC for consideration and all comments have been responded to publicly. This session will cover the progress on the MAHC as it becomes a comprehensive tool designed for adoption by state and local environmental public health authorities. This will include discussion of the key public comments received, the responses and resulting changes, and the data gaps that need to be filled to better protect public health in the future. Discussion will also include the rationale and the science behind the MAHC language, particularly emphasizing the Annex, which provides explanations, references, and highlights the research gaps. The future of MAHC Version 1.0 and opportunities for improvement will also be discussed.

  • European Guidelines and Regulations for Management of Recreational Waters and Natural Thermal SpringsAdd to cart: $19.95

    European Guidelines and Regulations for Management of Recreational Waters and Natural Thermal Springs

    Abstract

    Recreational water environments can be classified in: coastal and fresh waters, swimming pool and similar structures. This classification is too restrictive for some particular recreational places, like thermal pools (SPA) and nature like swimming ponds. The use of waters for recreational purposes or wellness has deep roots in the European culture. Epidemiological issues and public health models will be addressed, considering also research and technological innovation in the field. Today, European Union, demand to each country harmonized regulations, following communitarian directives, e.g. the European Directive 2006/7/CE concerning the management of bathing water quality. However, swimming pools environments and SPA find no EU-level enforced laws, and each country adopts local regulations and safety thresholds. The heterogeneous situation is also due to the presence of several differences in the EU countries, due to geographical, cultural, political issues.

    Thermal pools (SPA) and nature like swimming ponds are regulated by different approaches, that are related to the specific monitoring and surveillance strategies that local public health systems adopted. SPA pools are characterized by waters with peculiar chemical composition that make strong interference with standard sanitization procedures adopted in pools. Nature like swimming ponds are artificial ponds where biodepuration is adopted instead of chemical disinfectants. While still missing communitarian laws for these environments, also national laws seems to be inadequate and specific guidelines/regulations are strongly needed taking in consideration health, safety and quality, also by advanced technological approaches.

  • The Science Behind the MAHC: Safety TopicsAdd to cart: $19.95

    The Science Behind the MAHC: Safety Topics Bob Vincent, RS, MPA, Florida Dept. of Health & Kathryn Scott, MA, University of CA, Berkley

    Abstract

    MAHC Version 1.0 and Beyond

    The MAHC Version 1.0 has arrived. Each module has been posted for public comment with the final version posted this summer. Hundreds of comments have been submitted to CDC for consideration and all comments have been responded to publicly. This session will cover the progress on the MAHC as it becomes a comprehensive tool designed for adoption by state and local environmental public health authorities. This will include discussion of the key public comments received, the responses and resulting changes, and the data gaps that need to be filled to better protect public health in the future. Discussion will also include the rationale and the science behind the MAHC language, particularly emphasizing the Annex, which provides explanations, references, and highlights the research gaps. The future of MAHC Version 1.0 and opportunities for improvement will also be discussed.